Feline Cancer Resources - Overview
Phil and Holly
Cytology and Histopathology - "The type of cells and bacteria present in a particular area of the body gives us important information about the nature of disease your pet may have. We commonly use cytology and histopathology to examine relevant areas and aid in the diagnosis process." Provides good, brief explanation on what cytology and histopathology are and how they are performed to help diagnose various diseases.
Cytology and the Diagnosis of Neoplasia - (PDF file) Maxey L. Wellman, DVM, PhD. From Oncology and Hematology, 20th Waltham/OSU Symposium, 1996, WalthamUSA.com. "Cytology refers to the microscopic evaluation of cells. Cytologic evaluation can be very useful in the clinical diagnosis of neoplasia (cancer). Samples for cytology can be collected from a wide variety of sites and many different tissues. Samples can be collected on an outpatient basis. Both sample collection and specimen preparation can be performed using inexpensive equipment that is readily available in most veterinary practices. In-house interpretations can be made the same day, and interpretations from reference laboratories frequently are available within 24 hours."
The Histopathlogy Laboratory in the Diagnosis of Neoplasia - (PDF file) Steven E. Weisbrode, VMD, PhD. From Oncology and Hematology, 20th Annual Waltham OSU Symposium, 1996.
Imaging Techniques in the Clinical Evaluation and Oncologic Disorders - (PDF file) David S. Biller, DVM. From Oncology and Hematology, 20th Waltham/OSU Symposium, 1996.
Diagnostics methods in cancer - Dr. Ron Lowe, BVSc MRCVS, PetCancerVet, Knaresborough, N Yorks, UK.
Cancer diagnosis - Animal Health Trust, UK.
Overview of Biopsy Principles and Surgical Oncology - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
Biopsy - Brief explanation of biopsy. OncoLink Vet, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center.
Choosing the Right Biopsy for the Job - Continuing Education Page for veterinarians written by Brian Wilcock, D.V.M., Ph.D., HISTOVET Surgical Pathology.
What Can You Realistically Expect from Biopsies? - Continuing Education Page for veterinarians written by Brian Wilcock, D.V.M., Ph.D., HISTOVET Surgical Pathology.
BIOPSY BIOPSY BIOPSY - THE THREE TENETS OF ONCOLOGY - Biopsy Information Sheet, School of Veterinary Science University of Queensland Brisbane, Qld, 4072, Australia:
Animal Cancer Care Information - Animcal Cancer Care. School of Veterinary Science University of Queensland Brisbane, Qld, 4072, Australia
Client's Section - Explains the importance of getting a biopsy whenever a suspicious "lump" was found on pet's body, and the procedure. The Cancer Treatment Unit . 156 Cromwell Road . Whitstable . Kent CT5 1NA . England.
Cytology and Biopsies for the Practitioner: Part 1 - C. Guillermo Couto, DVM, ACVIM College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio, USA. WSAVA 2002 Congress Proceedings.
(Photos of human cancer) Recognizing Neoplastic Skin Lesions: A Photo Guide - Photos and descriptions of common human cancer. American Family Physician.
(Photos of cancer in domestic ferret) Pathology of the Domestic Ferret - Bruce H. Williams, DVM, Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Pathologists. Photos of some cutaneous tumors.
Cats - Oncology - PetPlace.com. The types of cancer covered are:
Information on cancer of dogs and cats - Another detailed list of cancer in dogs and cats. VetMedCenter Medical Resources, Oncology. Cancer described include:
Tumors and Cancer in Cats - List of most common feline cancer. Types of cancer described include: Hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, melanoma, nasal sarcoma, mesothelioma, nasal lymphoma, leukemia or lymphoma, phenochromocytomsas, adenocarcinoma, lymphosarcoma, abdominal mass, fatty cell tumor (lipoma). Vetinfo by Dr. Mike Richards, D.V.M.
Cancer & Tumors - Directory of cancer and tumors in cats. Max's House.
Histological Classification of tumours of domestic animals WHO/OMS 1974 - Animal Tumour Registry. Read the "Introduction" section first, then the specific type of tumor.
Ten Best Kept Secrets for Treating Cats with Cancer - Dr. Gregory Ogilvie. Proceedings, WSAVA 2002. Cancer types discussed: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, oral squamous cell carcinoma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, round cell (discrete cell) tumors, mammary adenocarcinoma, vaccine associated sarcoma.
Mast Cell Tumors: Hot New Diagnostics and Treatment! - Dr. Gregory Ogilvie, Proceedings, WSAVA 2002.
WSAVA 2002 Oncology - List of scientific presentations of oncology at WSAVA 2002.
Types of Cancer - (for humans) OncoLink, Abramson Cancer Center of University of Pennsylvania.
Animal Cancer - A brief overview of animal cancer. American Veterinary Medical Association.
Cancer in Dogs and Cats - Overview of cancer in dogs and cats at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine.
Diseases of the Feline Digit - Discusses various tumors that occur in feline digits (legs). Tumor types include Eosinophilic Collagenolytic Granuloma, Digital Soft Tissue Sarcoma (Fibrosarcoma, Giant Cell Tumor of Soft Tissue) , Bronchial Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to Digit, and Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Written by Dr. Brian Wilcock. HISTOVET Surgival Pathology.
Educational Library for Pet Owners, Cancer Articles - Vet Surgery Central Inc. The following tumors are discussed (with some photos of the tumors; some graphic):
Why is Cancer Killing Our Pets? - by Deborah Straw Conscious Choice, November 2000.
Cancer is a treatable disease - All Care Animal Referral Center (Fountain Valley, CA).
Oncology / Radiation Therapy - List of articles on oncology and radiation therapy by Veterinary Referral Center of Colorado's information library.
Lectures on small animal cancer - LSU School of Veterinary Medicine
Handouts - LSU School of Veterinary Medicine
OncoSite Frequently Asked Questions - An educational and resource site for animal oncology. Easy-to-understand explanation about animal oncology. Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine. The questions answered include:
Ask the Experts (Cancer FAQ) - Most Recently Answered Questions. OncoLink Vet, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center.
Ask the Experts (Cancer FAQ Archive) - Previously Answered Questions. OncoLink Vet, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center.
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and Environmental/Lifestyle Risk Factors
Phil, who had oral SCC, was never exposed to tobacco smoke and he ate homemade diet more than half of his life. However, the following studies indicate that the environmental and lifestyle risk factors may play a role in developing oral SCC in pet cats. Something to think about...
and lifestyle risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in domestic
cats." Bertone ER, Snyder LA, Moore AS. J Vet Intern Med. 2003
expression and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in feline oral squamous
cell carcinoma." Snyder LA, Bertone ER, Jakowski RM, Dooner MS,
Jennings-Ritchie J, Moore AS. Vet Pathol. 2004 May;41(3):209-14.
Photos of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Articles on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and other oral cancer
Gemcitabine as a radiosensitizer for nonresectable feline oral squamous cell carcinoma - J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2003 Sep-Oct;39(5):463-7. Jones PD, de Lorimier LP, Kitchell BE, Losonsky JM. Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Illinois, 1008 West Hazelwood Drive, Urbana, Illinois 61802, USA. PubMed abstract.
A phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with advanced, persistent, or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix - Human study of gemcitabie and cisplatin on squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. PubMed abstract.
Treatment of advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck with alternating chemotherapy and radiotherapy - The New England Journal of Medicine. Abstract.
Hypofractionated radiation therapy of oral melanoma in five cats - PubMed abstract.
Oral Feline Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Clinical Trials. Penn Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies. Randomized, prospective clinical study consisting of 40 cats with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of oral SCC treated with mitoxantrone chemotherapy in combination with piroxicam (in progress).
Oral Neoplasia - P. Bergman and D. T. Carmichael The Animal Medical
Center, New York, New York, USA. (In: Recent Advances in Small Animal
Dentistry, Carmichael D.T. (Ed.) International Veterinary Information
Service, Ithaca NY (www.ivis.org), 2003; A0710.0203)
Oral Neoplasia - Dr. Brian Wilcock (HISTOVET Surgical Pathology). Includes data on the recurrence, one-year survival rate, and median survival months after partial mandibulectomy or maxillectomy of various forms of oral tumors in dogs and cats. The types of cancer discussed are squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and fibrosarcoma.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (jaw, tongue, gum) - Long Beach Animal Hospital.
Recognizing Oral Disease - Steven Holmstrom, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
Oral Tumors and Their Biology - Stephen Withrow, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
Odontogenic Tumours - Frank Verstraete, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
Adjunctive Treatment of Oral Tumors - Stephen Withrow, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
FAQs: Oral Masses/Ulcers - VeterinaryPartner.com.
Feline Squamous Cell Carcinoma -- Personal Accounts - Oral SCC, diaries of treatment, symptoms, links, biopsy, oncologist search, syringe feeding, daily care, pet loss support, medical needs, Q&A group. Angel Snoop's site.
Oral Proliferative Lesions in Dogs And Cats - Leen Verhaert, Belgium. Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
What is the prognosis for oral cancer in a cat? - VetCentric article. Squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, epulis (dental tumor), and epulides.
Update on Canine and Feline Gastrointestinal Neoplasia - Stanley Marks, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
Feline GI Pearls - Margie Scherk, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
Tumors of the Spleen in Cats and Dogs - VetCentric article.
Canine and Feline Lymphoma: Review of Prognostic Factors and Treatment Options - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
Lymphoma: Cancer of the White Blood Cells - Overview of lymphoma in dogs and cats. UC Davis Center for Companion Animal Health CCAH Update, Spring 1999. Topics includes: The Disease in Dogs, The Disease in Cats, Therapy and Remission, and What to Expect.
What is lymphosarcoma? - VetCentric.com article on lymphosarcoma (a.k.a., lymphoma) in dogs.
Lymphoma, Lymphosarcoma - Overview of lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) in dogs and cats. Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine.
Lymphosarcoma in cats - Another overview of lymphosarcoma in cats. VetMedCenter.com.
Lymphoma in Dogs and Cats - Pet Health Information Sheet, The Animal Medical Center. "Lymphoma, also known as malignant lymphoma, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic cancer, and LSA, is considered systemic cancer and is the most common malignant tumor other than skin cancer in dogs and cats. The incidence of lymphoma is higher in cats than in dogs, primarily because of the feline leukemia virus. Fortunately, the disease can be treated successfully by chemotherapy." Topics: Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis.
Lymphoma in Cats - VIN.com. "Lymphoma accounts for one third of all cancers developed by cats. It is best classified by the anatomical areas most commonly affected: Mediastinal (most common form 20 years ago), Intestinal (most common form now), Renal, Ocular (eye), Nasal."
"* As with dogs, chemotherapy protocols are associated with minimal side effects. Many protocols have been described for the feline lymphoma patient.
- In one study 7 cats were treated with the COP protocol (cyclophosphamide,
vincristine, and prednisone). Of these 7 cats, 6 achieved remission with
a median duration of remission lasted 19 weeks. The grade of intestinal
lymphoma was not considered.
Prognostic Factors for Canine and Feline Mammary Cancer - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001. "Approximately 85% of feline mammary neoplasms are histologically malignant. Cancer may arise from either glandular or ductal tissue and tumors are categorized as either solid (35%), tubular (50%), or papillary (15%). Fifty percent of cats may have multiple glands develop tumors simultaneously. Local extension may be significant with rapid spread to regional lymph nodes and a relatively high rate of distant metastasis if not detected and treated early." Topics discussed: Incidence, Etiology, Clinical Behavior, Diagnosis and Staging, Treatment, and Prognosis.
Mammary Gland Tumors in Dogs and Cats - Overview of mammary cancer in dogs and cats. Veterinary Referral Center of Colorado.
Mammary Gland Tumors - Overview. PetPlace.com.
Mammary Gland Tumors in Cats and Dogs - Pet Health Information Sheet, The Animal Medical Center. "Mammary gland tumor(s) is common in both cats and dogs. The disease tends to develop in middle-aged to older animals. About 50% of all breast tumors in dogs are malignant (cancerous), while the other 50% are benign (not cancerous). In cats, most (85 to 90%) mammary tumors are cancerous. Unlike people, dogs and cats have four to five mammary glands on each side, extending along their entire underside." Topics: Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis.
Mammary Gland Tumors in Cats - For cat owners. Explains what mammary gland tumors in cats are, what causes them, signs, how they are diagnosed and treated, and what the prognosis is. VetMedCenter.com.
Mammary Gland Tumors--Cats - Veterinarian's version of the above article. Basics - Diagnosis - Treatment - Medications - Follow-Up - Miscellaneous. 5 minute veterinary consult. VetMedCenter.com.
Mammary Tumors in Dogs and Cats: What Do I Tell the Owner? - Dr. Brian Wilcock, HISTOVET Surgical Pathology.
Understanding Your Pathology Report - For human breast cancer patient. Explains various items that appear in a pathology report of human breat cancer biopsy.
Squamous cell carcinoma - Long Beach Animal Hospital
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - For pet owners. Definition of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. VetMedCenter.com.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Skin - Veterinarian's version of the above article. VetMedCenter.com.
Basal Cell Tumor (A Skin Tumor) - For pet owners. Definition of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. VetMedCenter.com.
Basal Cell Tumor - Veterinarian's version of the above article. VetMedCenter.com.
Causes of Solid-Appearing Lumps & Bumps on the Skin - "Cats can develop small bumps (papules) or larger lumps (nodules) on their skin. The term 'tumor' means an abnormal growth or swelling, and is often used to designate cancer. Often the word 'lump' also brings the word 'cancer' to mind. There are, however, many other causes of lumps and bumps." A table of Condition, Description, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of various lumps and bumps seen on the skin of cats. PetEducation.com.
Lumps and Bumps - on dogs, but also applies to cats. Article by Dr. Dunn appeared in the May, 2002, issue of Dog World Magazine.
Injection-site sarcoma - PetPlace.com
Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force - American Veterinary Medical Association.
Vaccines and Sarcomas: A Concern for Cat Owners - Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force page for cat owners.
Vaccine Associated Fibrosarcoma - Wendy Brook, DVM, DipABVP. Vin.com.
Chemotherapy and Feline Sarcomas? - Vaccine-assosiated sarcomas in cats (VAS; also known as injection-site sarcomas) and treatment options. Gulf Coast Veterianary Specialists Tumor Tidbit.
Vaccine-Associated Sarcomas in the Cat - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
Feline Vaccination Protocols - World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.
Chemotherapy and VAS - Dr. Kevin Hahn's Tumor Tidbit.
Feline Postvaccinal Sarcoma: A 2002 Update - Dr. Brian Wilcock (HISTOVET Surgical Pathology). He analyzes VAS from histological standpoint. Includes Canadian data of VAS.
Microchip injection site tumors:
Fibrosarcoma with typical features of postinjection sarcoma at site of microchip implant in a dog: histologic and immunohistochemical study - Vascellari M, Melchiotti E, Mutinelli F.
Tumors in long-term rat studies associated with microchip animal identification devices - Elcock LE, Stuart BP, Wahle BS, Hoss HE, Crabb K, Millard DM, Mueller RE, Hastings TF, Lake SG.
Lymphoma of the Central-Nervous-System - A Retrospective Study of 18 Cats - M Noonan, KL Kline, K Meleo Vet Internal Med Clin,Cincinnati,OH 00000 USA Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1997, 19, 4, 497. "The clinical presentation, neurologic findings, and pathology of lymphoma of the central nervous system - the most common spinal cord neoplasm in cats - are revisited by reviewing the medical records of 18 cats with this important neoplastic disease."
Diagnosis and Treatment of Brain Tumors - Richard A. LeCouteur, BVSc, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM (Neurology), DECVN University of California Davis, California, USA. WSAVA 2002 Congress Proceedings. "Primary brain tumors appear to be relatively uncommon in most domestic species, however this is not the case in dogs and cats. Although a broad spectrum of primary tumor types occurs in dogs, meningiomas and gliomas appear to occur most frequently. Most primary brain tumors are solitary, but multiple primary brain tumors have been reported. Secondary or metastatic tumors appear to be less common and may result from local extension (e.g., nasal adenocarcinoma) or metastases from primary tumors elsewhere. Skull tumors may affect the brain by local extension."
Prognosis factors for survival in cats after removal of a primary lung tumor: 21 cases (1979-1994). Hahn KA, McEntee MF. Department of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37901-1071, USA. Vet Surg 1998 Jul-Aug;27(4):307-11.
Endogenous lipid (cholesterol) pneumonia associated with bronchogenic carcinoma in a cat. Jerram RM, Guyer CL, Braniecki A, Read WK, Hobson HP. Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843-4474, USA.
Metastatic digital carcinoma in the cat: a retrospective study of 36 cats (1992-1998). Gottfried SD, Popovitch CA, Goldschmidt MH, Schelling C. Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Center, Langhorne, Pennsylvania 19047, USA.
Classification of lung carcinomas in the dog and cat. Moulton JE, von Tscharner C, Schneider R. Vet Pathol 1981 Jul;18(4):513-28.
Probable hypercalcemia of malignancy in a cat with bronchogenic adenocarcinoma. Anderson TE, Legendre AM, McEntee MM. Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37901-1071, USA. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000 Jan-Feb;36(1):52-5.
Two of four defining features must be present for diagnosis--monoclonal gammopathy (caused by increased production of immunoglobulins), bone marrow invasion by plasma cells, Bence Jones proteinuria, and lytic (destroyed) bone lesions (VetMedCenter). The tumor cells are primarily immature plasma cells, which usually secrete immunoglobulin. This results in hyperglobulinemia (increase in globulin level).
Celeste was found to have monoclonal gammopathy by serum protein electrophoresis test. The internal medicine specialist recommends Bence-Jones protein test next before doing bone marrow biopsy. (Read the rest at Celeste's page.)
Multiple Myeloma - VetMedCenter article. 5 minute veterinary consult.
Multiple Myeloma - VetMedCenter article. Information for owners.
Deep Down in the Bone Marrow - July 23, 2001 Written by: Celeste A. Clements, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM. VetCentric.
Problem Solving Case Example - "A 12-year-old, neutered male domestic shorthair cat is presented for evaluation of lethargy and partial inappetence for 3 days. This cat lives exclusively indoors with 7 other cats that currently are healthy. Routine vaccinations were administered within the last 6 months. On physical examination the cat is depressed and slightly dehydrated with rectal temperatureof 102.2 F, pulse of 240/min, and respiratory rate of 30 breaths/min. Breath sounds are normal, mucous membranes are pink, and capillary refill time is 2 seconds. Ophthalmic examination reveals tortuous retinal vessels in both eyes and retinal hemorrhages." Small Animal Problem Solving, Virginia Tech.
Myeloma in Cats: Variable Presentation with Different Immunoglobulin Isotypes
in Two Cats - D. Bienzle, D. C. Silverstein and K. Chaffin. Veterinary
Pathology 37:364-369 (2000).
Current Chemotherapy in Oncology - (scroll down to "Myeloma") Susan M. Cotter DVM, DACVM (Oncology and Internal Medicine) Tufts University, School of Veterinary Medicine North Grafton, MA.
Treatment of Bone Tumors - (Last Updated: 1-Jan-1985) K. A. Jeglum. In: Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics, Newton C.D. and Nunamaker D.M. (Eds.) Ithaca: International Veterinary Information Service, 1985; B0080.0685.
Malignant Bone Tumors in the Dog - (Last Updated: 1-Jan-1985) M. H. Goldschmidt and D. E. Thrall. In: Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics, Newton C.D. and Nunamaker D.M. (Eds.) Ithaca: International Veterinary Information Service, 1985; B0077.0685.
Hyperglobulinemia - Veterinary Clinical Chemistry. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine.
Immunoglobulin-producing tumours in dogs and cats - Breuer W, Colbatzky F, Platz S, Hermanns W. Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Munich, F.R.G. J Comp Pathol. 1993 Oct;109(3):203-16. (PubMed)
Monoclonal gammopathies - Merck Veterinary Manual.
Total Protein Electrophoresis - "This procedure separates the proteins in serum and body fluids (e.g. peritoneal fluid, urine) into the component immunoglobulins. Electrophoresis is indicated for determination of the underlying nature of a hyperglobulinemia or if multiple myeloma is suspected in a patient." College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University.
Lymphosarcoma In Cats (Differential diagnosis) - "Monoclonal gammopathy has been described in cats with lymphosarcoma and is primarily because of the increased production of IgG from a clone of immunoglobulin producing cells. Clinical signs are primarily associated with hyperviscosity resulting in ophthalmic, neurologic, hematologic, and renal abnormalities. Clinical signs in cats with monoclonal gammopathy are nonspecific and include anorexia and lethargy. Protein electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis help establish a diagnosis after the recognition of an abnormally elevated total serum protein concentration. Differentials for a monoclonal gammopathy in a cat include multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, and benign hyperglobulinemia."
Hemolymphatic Disease - (PowerPoint presentation) Includes chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and hemangiosarcoma. Dr. Susan Eddlestone. Oklahoma State University.
Immunoglobulin A myeloma in a cat with pleural effusion and serum hyperviscosity. Hawkins EC, Feldman BF, Blanchard PC. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1986 Apr 15;188(8):876-8. "Immunoglobulin A myeloma, serum hyperviscosity, and septic pleuritis were diagnosed in a cat with pleural and peritoneal effusions. Serum hyperviscosity was determined by use of a WBC pipette, and clinical manifestations included retinopathy and cardiac changes. The presence of Salmonella typhimurium in the pleural fluid may have resulted from increased susceptibility to infection. Postmortem examination revealed plasma cell infiltration of the pleura, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the serosa of the intestine, liver, and spleen. This case represents an unusual form of myeloma in the cat."
MEDICAL ONCOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW Multiple Myeloma and Other Plasma-Cell Dyscrasias - (Human information) Vali Papadimitrakopoulou, MD, Donna M. Weber, MD; M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
Multiple Myeloma and Plasmacytoma - (Human information) Union Hospital. "When myeloma cells collect in only one bone and form a single mass, or tumor, it is called a plasmacytoma. In most cases, however, according to NCI, the myeloma cells collect in many bones, forming many tumors and causing other problems. When this happens, the disease is called multiple myeloma."
"Idiopathic" Bence Jones proteinuria: long-term follow-up in seven patients - (Human information) RA Kyle, and PR Greipp. New England Journal of Medicine.
Multiple Myeloma - (Human information) Regis Bataille, M.D., Ph.D., and Jean-Luc Harousseau, M.D. New England Journal of Medicine.
Types of myeloma - (Human information) Cancer Research UK.
Diagnosing Primary Lung Tumors in Cats - Veterinary Referral Center of Colorado. Includes some radiographs (X-rays) of lung tumors. Clinical signs, appearances on radiographs, diagnosis, surgical removal of mass, chemotherapy, and possible metastasis to digits.
Primary Lung Tumors - Merck Veterinary Manual.
Lung tumors - Vet Surgery Central. Written by Dr. Daniel A. Degner, Board-certified Veterinary Surgeon (DACVS).
Dyspnea in Cats - Trouble Breathing in Cats - PetPlace Veterinarians.
PULMONARY PATTERNS ("LUNG PATTERNS") - DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY, Dr. Patricia Rose. Collections of throacic radiographs (X-rays).
Lymphangiosarcoma in Cats - Ann Strieby; Paula Krimer, DVM, DVSc; and Kenneth Latimer DVM, PhD. University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology.
Malignant Effusions - Gulf Coast Veterinary Specialists.
Cancer Glossary - Medicine Online
Definitions and Abbreviations of Veterinary Terms - Washington State University Veterinary Medicine.
Veterinary Abbreviations and Acronyms - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Veterinary Medicine Library.
The On-line Medical Dictionary - CancerWeb. Human cancer terminology.
Glossary of Veterinary Terms - Bernese Mountain Dog Club of America.
Encyclopedia of Cancer - Human information. enotes.com.